Our approach to learning / teaching will be shaped by what we believe these things are / should be.
Or put another way – our preconception determines our learning / teaching experience. For example :
- A teacher who believe’s experience should be ‘passed on’ vs. a teacher who let’s their students learn for themselves.
- A student who wants to experiment vs. a student who wants to be indoctrinated.
We examined some basic theories & principals.
Richardson (2005) :
Concepts of teaching :
- Imparting information.
- Transmitting structured knowledge.
- Student / teacher interaction.
- Facilitation of understanding.
- Bring about a conceptual change in a student.
Concepts of learning :
- Increase of knowledge.
- Abstraction of meaning.
- Process fuelled by personal interests.
Gladwell, Outliers :
Practice makes perfect (10,000 hours to achieve expertise).
Learners construct their own learning.
- Teacher poses questions / problems.
- The subject is related to larger ideas / concepts.
Constuctive Alignment (John Biggs 2002) :
What the student does = what the teacher does.
Learning outcomes = Learning activities = Assessment & feeedback.
Authentic Assessment = Aligned Assessment = Relevant to the real world.
Teacher prescence throughout activities will enable better aligned assessment.
Students with different starting points means standardised assessment may be more difficult.
Unaligned Assessment – For example marking down for bad grammer when it isn’t in the Learning Outcomes.
Transformative Learning (Jack Mezirou 1991) :
- Recognise exsisting limits of understanding.
- Reform understanding.
Engagement with conflicting view points / defend foreign positions to challenge & stretch students.
Threshold Concepts :
Transformative (when you cross the threshold).
- Intergrative (enables connections between different areas).
- Potentially difficult. (Reassessment through doing something outside of your comfort zone / fresh perspective).
- Santa Clause / cultural issues.
- Acid test.
- On sonic art.
Experiential Learning (David Kolb) :
Do > Reflect > Do > Reflect > Do > Reflect >>>>> And so on…
Concrete Experience > Sharing > Processing > Reflecting > Applying > Concrete Experience >>>>> And so on…#
Social Learning Theory :
Learning as a social experience, part of everyday life.
Communities of practice (COP)(Jean Lane / Etienne Wenger)
- Shared interest.
- Shared relationship.
- Shared repetoire.
- Legitimate peripheral participation (it’s ok to be a beginner / more / less involved in a COP.